McCafferty et al (2017) Development of NEATstik® – a Novel Lateral Flow Device for the Detection of Active Neutrophil Elastase in Patients with Respiratory Disease, Poster presentation at ATS.


Active Neutrophil Elastase - bronchiectasis

Chalmers et al (2017) Neutrophil Elastase Activity is Associated with Exacerbations and Lung Function Decline in Bronchiectasis, AJRCCM; 195(10): 1384-1393.


Active Neutrophil Elastase - COPD

Thulborn et al (2016) Evaluating the sensitivity and specificity of active neutrophil elastase as a biomarker for bacterial infection in subjects with COPD, Thorax; 71: A28.

Moffitt et al (2016) Development of a Novel ProteaseTag® Activity Immunoassay for the Specific Measurement of Neutrophil Elastase in Clinical Samples from Patients with Respiratory Disease, Lab Methodology and Engineering; A7425-A7425.

Moffitt et al (2015) Development of a Novel Assay for the Detection of Active Neutrophil Elastase in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Thorax; 70: A126-A127: The objective of this study was to clinically validate ProteaseTag® Active NE Ultra Immunoassay for the detection of NE in sputum from COPD patients.


Active Neutrophil Elastase - cystic fibrosis

Moffitt et al (2015) Utilisation of a novel ProteaseTag™ activity immunoassay for the specific measurement of neutrophil elastase in BAL from children with cystic fibrosis, Pediatr Pulmonol; S41: 266-267.

Sly et al (2013) Risk factors for bronchiectasis in children with cystic fibrosis, New Engl J Med; 368: 1963-1970. This longitudinal study in clinically stable children over the first three years of life found free NE in bronchoalveolar lavage at 3 months to be the major predictor of persistent bronchiectasis at both 12 months and 3 years of age.

Sagel et al (2012) Sputum biomarkers of inflammation and lung function decline in children with cystic fibrosis, Am J Respir Crit Care Med; 186: 857-865. This prospective, longitudinal cohort study, conducted over three years in 35 CF children and measuring a range of airway mediators related to proteolysis and a panel of inflammatory cytokines concluded sputum levels of NE to be predictive of subsequent lung function decline and the most informative biomarker to monitor disease activity.

Martin et al (2011) Development of a novel tool for the rapid detection of neutrophil elastase as a marker of inflammation within the clinic, JCF; 10 (S1): S46

Mayer-Hamblett et al (2007) Association between pulmonary function and sputum biomarkers in cystic fibrosis, Am J Respir Crit Care Med; 175: 822-828. Data from 4 multi-centre studies identified NE to negatively correlate with lung function (forced expiratory volume in 1 second; FEV1). Patients who differed in their NE measurements by 0.5 log differed in FEV1 values by -7.3%. NE was also shown to have a longitudinal association with FEV1 specifically a -0.29% decline in FEV1 per 1 log increase of NE.


Other active protease biomarkers

Robb et al (2016) Development of a novel ProteaseTag® Immunoassay for the detection and measurement of cathepsin G in adult cystic fibrosis patients, JCF; 15(1): S63.


ProteaseTag technology and general reviews

Keir et al (2017) Profile of the ProAxsis active neutrophil elastase immunoassay for precision medicine in chronic respiratory disease, Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics; 17(10): 875-884.

A BMG Labtech application note (2015) concludes that the ProteaseTag™ Active NE Immunoassay provides a simple and quick method of assessing active neutrophil elastase levels, and constitutes a reliable method for the detection of infection and inflammation in biological samples.

Martin (2014) Management of cystic fibrosis. The pharmacological treatment of cystic fibrosis, together with implications for health economics, therapeutic monitoring and adherence, are discussed.

Korkmaz et al (2010) Neutrophil Elastase, Proteinase 3, and Cathepsin G as Therapeutic Targets in Human Diseases, Pharmacological Reviews; 62(4): 726-759.

Voynow et al (2008) Proteases and cystic fibrosis, Int J Biochem Cell Biol.; 4(6-7):1238-45.